WHAT IS RETINAL DETACHMENT?
Retinal Detachment Definition: The separation of the retina from the skin of the eye in the eye is called a retinal detachment. This results in an accumulation of liquid between the layers. As a result, the retina bulges into the eyeball. At this point, the supply of the retina with oxygen and nutrients from the choroid does not occur. Functional disorders are the result – from facial field failures to complete blindness. However, if the disease is treated at an early stage, the visual acuity of the affected eye can usually be obtained.
WHAT CAUSES RETINAL DETACHMENT?
Retinal Detachment Causes: The retinal detachment affects one of 10,000 people, equivalent to 0.01%. In addition to myopia, previous cataract surgery and diabetes mellitus, as well as inflammatory processes and/or tumours in the eye, are also considered as risk factors.
- Rheumatogenic Retinal Detachment: If the retinal detachment is caused by the tearing of the retina, it is referred to as rhegmatogenous or crack-induced retinal detachment. It is mostly due to shrinkage of the vitreous body in old age. The glass body consisting of a gelatinous mass is located inside the eyeball. As a result of the shrinkage, the vitreous body “pulls” on the retina so that it can tear. Holes are formed, as a result of which liquid can get out of the glass body. This oozes between the retina and the underlying pigment epithelium, which leads to the detachment of the retina.
- Exudative Retinal Detachment: For the – very rarely diagnosed – exudative retinal detachment, fluid retention is responsible. In this case, fluid emerges from the vessels of the choroid, which accumulates between the retina and the pigment epithelium. The cause for this is usually inflammation in the eye. Inflammations are associated with severe general diseases – for example, AIDS. In exceptional cases, a tumour such as a choroid melanoma is responsible.
- Tractive Retinal Detachment: The tractive or tension-induced retinal detachment occurs when the tissue of the vitreous and/or layers of the retina are cicatrized. The area around the scar is shortened, resulting in a traction effect. In many cases, diabetic retinopathy caused by long-term diabetes – a damaged retina – is the cause of the tractive detachment. Sometimes, however, it is also a late episode of a so-called premature retinopathy.
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF RETINAL DETACHMENT?
Retinal Detachment Symptoms: Following are the few symptoms of retinal detachment;
- Flashes of light, soot flakes, loss of field of vision: Typical symptoms of a retinal detachment have crystallized out not only light flashes but above all points and lines as well as fog swathes. In addition, some patients also report sooty flakes, even soot, ie an apparent swarm of black spots. Others perceive a dark curtain or shadow disturbingly in the field of the face: light perception is not possible in the areas of retinal detachment on the eye. A loss of the facial field is the consequence which the person concerned perceives as a curtain or veil.
- Flying mosquitoes: The so-called “mouches volantes”, the flying mosquitoes, are usually harmless – they are triggered by glass bodies. Nearly transparent streaks, dots or even “mosquitoes” are characteristic of this – they appear particularly in front of a bright background or in reading.
Caution is still required: If you notice “Mouches volantes” for the first time or if they notice that they are changing, you should in any case prophylactically consult an ophthalmologist – alone to rule out a retinal fracture and thus the risk of retinal detachment in the eye.
WHAT TREATS RETINAL DETACHMENT?
Retinal Detachment Treatment:
- laser Treatment: A retinal detachment and a retinal tear can not be treated with medication. In the case of a tear of the retina, that is, before the beginning of a retinal detachment, the laser of the eye concerned helps. Using the laser beam, an inflammatory reaction can be provoked at the injured site. As a result, the tissue and the hole in the retina cured. In this way, a retinal detachment can be counteracted in many cases.
- Eye Surgery: In the case of a diagnosed retinal detachment, however, a laser treatment proves to be ineffective: in such a case, only the eye surgery still helps. The surgical method depends on the form of the detachment as well as the stage of the disease. The focus here is on the fixation of the detached retina, as well as the removal of the triggering factors – for example, changes to the vitreous body.
- Schaumstoffplombe: If it is a single hole or a crack, the eyeball is thickened at the appropriate point by a foam seal sewn onto the skin of the leather from the outside.
- Belt Operation: When several holes are present, a belt operation is indicated: A band is drawn around the entire eyeball and shortened until a circular constriction is produced. A puncture in the liquid area between the retina and the choroid is used to remove fluid. The holes or cracks are then sealed with the seal or tape.
- Operation in the inner eye: However, the two surgical methods mentioned (see 6.2.1 and 6.2.2) do not always provide the solution: If the retinal detachment on the eye already exists for an extended period of time, and there are already adhesions, there is no way of an operation in the inner eye a so-called pars-planar vitrectomy. Removing the vitreous from the eye removes the adhesions or eliminates the connective tissue strands. The glass body is replaced: this can be done by a gas as well as by silicone oil. Both allow the retina to be pressed from the inside to the choroid.