PERICARDITIS: Causes, Signs and Treatment!
Pericarditis is an inflammation of the heart bag. The incidence of heart attack is underestimated as many pericarditis remain undetected. Currently, an incidence of about 1000 new cases per year per million inhabitants is assumed in Germany.
WHAT IS PERICARDITIS?
The connective tissue (pericardium: “surrounding the heart”) is a sack-like covering of the heart. It consists of an inner leaf directly attached to the heart and an outer leaf, which as a capsule surrounds, fixes and protects the heart in the chest. A narrow fluid border between the two leaves allows for a low-friction cardiac function.
Inflammation of the heart bag is divided into acute pericarditis and chronic pericarditis with possible transition to a scarred defect healing of the heart bag.
WHAT IS AN ACUTE PERICARDITIS? In acute pericarditis, an inflammatory process occurs in the region of the leaves of the heart bag for exudation of inflammatory cells and inflammatory sheaths. This form of inflammation is called fibrinous pericarditis. If during the course of the inflammation, an accumulation of fluid accumulates between the two leaves of the heart sac, this is called an acute exudative serous, suppurative, or haemorrhagic form of pericarditis with pericardial effusion. Heartbeat inflammation may also include the underlying heart muscle (“perimyocarditis”).
All forms of pericarditis may heal or may pass into an acute recurrent or chronic form of pericarditis. A late complication of pericarditis is a scarred defect healing of the heart bag with lime deposits and the resultant filling disability of the heart. A bulbar heart can develop as a pronounced form of these scarring changes.
WHAT CAUSES PERICARDITIS?
Pericarditis Causes: Causes of pericarditis can be isolated, but also occur within the framework of various basic diseases. Over 50 percent of the diagnosed pericarditis patients remain without a detectable cause. If it is possible to name a cause, infectious diseases, mainly caused by viruses, rare tuberculosis or other bacteria, are the focus. Diseases of neighbouring organs can also lead to an accompanying inflammatory reaction of the heart sac. This happens predominantly in an acute myocardial infarction or a pneumonia. Pericarditis is rarer in metabolic disorders, eg in renal failure. To other causes include cardiac surgical operations, radiation in the chest, rheumatic diseases and rare systemic autoimmune diseases, HIV, parasites or certain medications.
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF PERICARDITIS?
Pericarditis Symptoms: The symptoms of heart attack are dependent on the cause, intensity and course of the disease. A typical symptom of acute pericarditis is a partially sharp, painful, protruding pain behind the sternum, occasionally radiating into the neck or shoulder region, which can intensify upon inhalation and may also vary depending on the position of the body. A lying body position can intensify the pain, sitting with the pre-bent upper body can reduce the pain. General symptoms such as fever, sweating and loss of performance are usually caused by the underlying disease, during which pericarditis occurs. Occasionally, these complaints are at the forefront, so the pericardial disease is only accidental in the context of the follow-up examinations (eg cardiac ultrasound, ECG, x-ray of the chest).
The typical pericardial pain often occurs in the initial stage of the disease. If heart palpation develops during the course, the complaints can improve significantly or disappear to a large extent. A particularly rapid increase of the fluid in the heart bag can hinder the heart filling and thus lead to air shortage, circulatory problems and in some cases to a circulatory failure (“pericardial tamponade”). Here, an immediate relief puncture of the heart bag effusion is required.
Acute recurrent and chronic progression show a diverse clinical symptomatic, which depends, among other things, in the form of the basic disease and the disease activity, the subjective illness feeling and the response to the drug therapy.
WHAT IS THE TREATMENT OF PERICARDITIS?
Pericarditis Treatment: As the treatment medication is used to decrease the irritation and swelling associated with pericarditis are frequently endorsed, including:
- Pain Killers: Most agony related with pericarditis reacts well to treatment with torment relievers accessible without a medicine, for example, headache medicine or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others). These medicines likewise help diminish irritation. Solution quality torment relievers additionally might be utilized.
- Colchicine (Colcrys, Mitigare): This medication, which diminishes irritation in the body, might be endorsed for intense pericarditis or as a treatment for intermittent indications. Colchicine can diminish the length of pericarditis side effects and abatement the hazard that the condition will repeat. Be that as it may, the medication is not alright for individuals with certain prior medical issues, for example, liver or kidney illness, and for those taking certain pharmaceuticals.
- Corticosteroids. On the off chance that you don’t react to torment relievers or colchicine or in the event that you have intermittent manifestations of pericarditis, your specialist may recommend a steroid solution, for example, prednisone.
At the point when a bacterial disease is a hidden reason for pericarditis, the patient will be treated with anti-infection agents and seepage if important.