Oral thrush- Pilinfection in the mouth
Oral thrush is one of the most common forms of thrush, a pelvic disease which can attack the skin and mucous membranes and is triggered by the yeast fungus Candida. The conception for all infections caused by this fungus is Candidose. Oral thrush is therefore also referred to as oral candidiasis. Pilinfection can occur on or in the mouth or in the area of the throat. Frequently, babies are affected, but also in adults with a weak immune system the infection is often observed. Read here how you can recognize and treat Mundsoor.
Forms of candidiasis in the mouth
Oral thrush is defined as a thrush in or on the mouth. Typically, the mouth fungus develops on the inside of the cheeks or lips. But also the throat, the tongue (tongue) or the palate may be affected.
Mundsoor can occur in different forms, whereby one form of oral thrush can also develop from another. These are the different types of thrush in the mouth and their signs:
- pseudomembranous candidiasis: white, erasable covering on reddened, inflamed mucosa
- acute erythematosis Candidosis: burning, strongly reddened mucous membrane without pads, especially on the tongue
- hyperplastic candidiasis: firm white covering with red edges on the mucous membrane and tongue
Pseudomembranous candidiasis is the most common form
In the most common form of oral thrush, the pseudomembranous candidiasis, isolated white speckles form in the oral cavity, which can be easily detached. The oral mucosa appears usually shining, dry and reddened.
During the course of the pilin infection, larger white, creamy-looking spots are formed, which can lead to bleeding of the mucous membrane upon detachment. Untreated may be oral thrush on the throat, the oesophagus (thrush-esophagitis) or the gastrointestinal tract.
Other symptoms of oral thrush
In addition to the described deposits and reddening of the mucous membrane, oral thrush – especially in the advanced stage – can cause further symptoms. This includes:
- furry or burning sensation in the mouth
- dry mouth
- increased thirst
- unpleasant or metallic taste in the mouth
- swollen lymph nodes
- Difficulty swallowing or pain during eating or drinking (especially in babies or spreading on the pharynx and oesophagus)
Untreated oral thrush may cause vomiting or heartburn.
In contrast to the mouth rot, which is triggered by the herpes simplex virus, oral thrush in children is accompanied by slight fever.
Causes and risk factors
Causes of oral thrush are always the Candida fungi belonging to the yeast fungi, mostly Candida albicans. In many healthy people, fungi are found in the oral cavity, intestine, or skin, and are usually not damaged as long as they are kept in check by the immune system and the other microorganisms. However, if they find a gap in this body-defences, they can multiply quickly and lead to discomfort.
This is why people with a weakened immune system are often affected by oral thrush. These include, in particular, babies, elderly people or persons suffering from diseases such as cancer, HIV or diabetes.
Frequent triggers of oral thrush
In babies, oral thrush is often a contagion to the mother – often infect themselves with the birth with an unnoticed vaginal fungus of the mother or later via the pacifier. Often, oral thrush occurs with babies together with Windsor, a poor infection in the diaper area.
In adults, missing teeth, braces or a bad- sitting tooth prosthesis often cause irritation of the oral mucosa. The fungi then nest under the prosthesis, for example, or enter the oral mucosa by injuries. Also, smoking and a dry mouth can promote the development of oral thrush.
In addition, the long-term use of certain medications is one of the possible triggers of oral thrush. Antibiotics, cortisone (for example, in the form of cortisone spray in asthma ) and cytostatics (during chemotherapy ) can neutralize the immune system or the mouth flora and pave the way for the development of the pig infection.
Diagnosis by means of characteristic symptoms
As a rule, the diagnosis of oral thrush is based on the characteristic, mostly visible symptoms, especially in small children. In addition, there is usually a questionnaire (or the parents’ question) about the complaints, circumstances and previous medical conditions. The diagnosis can be given by a dentist or dermatologist as well as by a paediatrician or general practitioner.
For a clear diagnosis, a smear is usually made from the oral mucosa and examined microscopically. In addition, fungal cultures can be grown to determine the exact nature of the Candida fungus. This may be necessary, in particular, if the disease is not responding to a drug treatment as expected, and a change of medication is considered.
In the ideal case, the doctor also clarifies where the entrance to the mushroom is located and treats the corresponding injury in the mouth. If diseases are responsible for the weakening of the immune system, these should also be treated.
Treat oral thrush
For the treatment of oral thrush, the doctor usually prescribes antifungal agents (antimycotics) especially suitable for the mouth area. These often contain the active ingredients nystatin, miconazole or amphotericin B. Often, the drugs are in the form of lozenges, gels, mouthwashes or suspensions. The remedy should remain as long as possible in the mouth.
In the therapy of oral thrush, it is important to adhere strictly to the doctor’s prescribed dosage of medication as well as the duration of therapy. Even if no covering is visible, the therapy must be completed as intended. Aborting can cause the fungus to return or even spread to other areas.
Experts strongly advise against the unauthorized treatment of the mouth fungus. Home remedies such as gargling with chamomile tea can aggravate the infection by further drying the oral mucosa.
To fight oral thrush, good oral hygiene is essential. As Candida fungi are often hiding in caries affected by tooth decay, the brushing should be particularly conscientious during the treatment of the oral cavity. Dentures, pacifiers, teats, toothbrushes or braces should be thoroughly sterilized or replaced if possible.
Be careful not to touch other people in your environment. Already a kiss or the sharing of dishes can be enough to transfer the Candida fungus.
Oral thrush is often persistent, but can usually be treated with these measures within eight to ten days. If the pelvic disease does not go away for an extended period of time, stronger drugs are usually used.