No period? No panic! These causes lead to cycle disorders
Waiting for the period: If the monthly bleeding fails, this is often a fright second. A question arises quickly: “Am I pregnant?” But the absence of menstruation can have other causes. We explain what causes the period to fail when a visit to the gynecologist is meaningful and what the absence of the rule (amenorrhea) means.
Day counting starts: If the monthly bleeding does not occur, many women fall into a slight panic. “Are I pregnant?”, “Have I properly guarded?”, “Did I take the pill right?” – these questions quickly whiz through the head. But not always is a pregnancy the reason for the missing period. The female cycle is complex and disorders can have different causes.
The absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) is a normal process during pregnancy, lactation and menopause . If pregnancy is excluded, the lack of menstruation can be attributed to other causes (pregnancy cannot be excluded should the gynecologist be sought). One speaks of a primary amenorrhea , if no month’s bleeding took place up to the 16th year of life. This usually involves a genetic disorder or a diseased change in the sex organs. In most cases, however, the absence of bleeding is a secondary amenorrhea– several cycles have already taken place before menstruation. In addition, the article discusses the most common causes of secondary amenorrhea.
1. Stress affects the cycle
A move, stress in the job, or a stressful family conflict: mental and physical stress can have a negative impact on the female cycle. Also important dates, upcoming journeys with time shift or time pressure bring the workings of the body together. For example, the menstrual bleeding may be absent in psychologically stressful phases.
The best way to counter the stress is relaxation. If you take your time and look at the needs of your own body, you will quickly return to the usual rhythm. Relaxation methods, such as progressive muscle relaxation , autogenic training or meditation, have a positive effect on the mind and well-being . Sport can also help restore the hormonal balance – stress is relieved by stress.
2. Extreme physical stress disturbs the menstruation
Performance athletes will know this: anyone who drives his body regularly to the absolute stress limit risks a disturbance of the cycle. After all, extreme sporting activities affect the body like stress. Too little of the female sex hormone estrogen is formed and the period remains out.
Here it helps to get a bit shorter and give the body more resting phases. Relaxation methods help the body in the regeneration and after some time the usual cycle should adjust again.
3. Underweight or overweight prevent the period
In the case of an underweight, the monthly hemorrhage does not occur. If the body registers a “too little” weight, the uterine lining does not ripen regularly and consequently there is no rejection. The focus of the organism is on the life-sustaining measures. Thus, the absence of the period is a common symptom in the eating disorders anorexia and bulimia . In cases of severe obesity or obesity, hormone production comes out of balance and the period may become dry.
In both cases, it is important to normalize body weight. After successful weight gain or loss, the hormonal balance also settles again and the monthly hemorrhage occurs as usual. In the event of an eating disorder, treatment is indicated by a therapist.
4. Disorders of hormone-forming structures
So that there is at least a monthly bleeding, the body produces a cocktail of different hormones. The pituitary gland, the adrenal cortex, the ovaries and the thyroid gland are the most important factors. If a part of the endocrine system is damaged, the absence of menstruation may result. Uplits, tumors or malformations can be a cause of the problem.
Here it is necessary to determine the exact cause by a doctor and to initiate a suitable treatment. Thyroid overdoses or subunits are treated with the administration of hormone preparations. In the case of a tumor on the pituitary gland, surgery may be necessary. Growths or cysts in the ovaries may also be surgically removed if necessary.
5. Diseases of the uterus as a cause of cycle disturbances
Various diseases of the uterus can lead to the absence of the period. After an eruption (curettage) the mucous membrane of the uterus can be damaged so that it does not come to the monthly set-up and the following rejection. Adhesions of the uterine lining can also lead to a fall in menstruation.
An inborn malformation of the uterus and / or vagina can prevent an outflow of the monthly bleeding. In this case, the treating gynecologist can correct the problem by intervention.
6. Precipitation of a hormonal contraceptive can prevent bleeding
Anyone who prevents the antibiotic over a prolonged period and sets the drug down must expect that the monthly cycle is initially disturbed. After the pill is discontinued, the bleeding can not continue until the natural cycle is restored. It may take several weeks or months for the hormone level to return to the normal level.
7. Medications that interfere with the cycle
A whole range of medications can cause the cycle to not be regular – the bleeding may be absent. These include, in the first instance, hormonal contraceptives such as the three-month syringe, minipilla, hormone pirals or implants. However, androgens (male sex hormones), drugs of cancer treatment (on a hormonal basis), preparations with cortisone and psychopharmaceuticals can prevent menstruation as a side effect.
Even if the bleeding does not occur with the taking of a new drug, the dose should never be reduced independently or the preparation should be discontinued. In a discussion with the treating physician, the cause of the cycle disorder can be determined and, if necessary, another medication can be prescribed.
8. Early onset of menopause
In some women it is already before the 40th year of age that the menopause occurs. The production of the egg sticks gradually increases. The consequence: Firstly, there are irregularities in the cycle until the period completely fails. In addition, there are the classic symptoms such as hot flashes and sleep disorders.
Diagnosis of amenorrhea: That makes the doctor
If there is a lack of regular bleeding during three consecutive months, a doctor’s visit is advisable. The gynecologist is the first stop. He will first question the patient about the current living conditions and, if necessary, basic diseases. When examining the abdomen (uterus, ovaries, vagina) possible physical changes can be observed. Ultrasonic shooting can be used.
If there is no physical change in the structures, he will take blood and urine samples and examine the hormone level. If the problem is here, an endocrinologist can be added.
Treatment of the cycle fault depends on the cause
Depending on what causes the disorder of the menstrual cycle, appropriate therapy is begun. In most cases, a mental imbalance and stress is the cause. Here: to bring peace into the everyday life and find the inner middle again. In some cases, a therapy can help to manage the emotional state.
A hormonal disease is usually treated with the administration of hormone preparations so that the regular cycle takes place again. Physical changes such as tumors are treated surgically.
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