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HEART ATTACK: Causes, Signs and Treatment

HEART ATTACK: Causes, Signs and Treatment


Heart Attack Definition: With a heart attack (myocardial infarction) almost everyone has already come into contact. Be it affected or as an associate of a person affected by a heart attack. If our circulatory motor lacks oxygen, it comes into stuttering or remains completely stationary. This does not happen very often: More than 250,000 people suffer a heart attack every year in Germany, about half of the cases are deadly.

Heart attack due to reduced oxygen supply: Like every other organ, the heart muscle needs oxygen for its activity. This is made available via the blood in the coronary vessels (coronary vessels). If these are narrowed, the muscle can no longer pump adequately – which leads to reduced stress and heartache.

The myocardial infarction is almost the maximum manifestation of the reduced oxygen supply. At one point, the blood supply is suddenly interrupted so that the muscle (myocardium) supplied is not only limited in its work but also receives too little oxygen and nutrients and dies – a heart attack, often with partial life-threatening consequences. If the affected person heats the heart attack, heals the infarction tissue and remains functional.

Myocardial Infarction: Depending on which of the heart halves is affected by a heart attack, one differentiates the left heart fist and the right heart fist. Depending on the affected area in the case of a myocardial infarction, anterior and posterior infarction. The right ventricular chamber is only rarely affected by the infarction of the left ventricle, which is associated with the course of the three major coronary arteries.

If necrosis (“dying”) affects all tissue layers in a heart attack, if one speaks of a transmural infarction, only the inner layer is damaged, from a layer infarction.


Heart Attack Causes: By far the most frequent causes of heart attack is the arteriosclerosis, which is referred to as coronary heart disease the coronary arteries are affected. Vascular calcification or arteriosclerosis is particularly common in industrialized countries. Several causes and risk factors for a myocardial infarction are known: smoking, stress, incorrect nutrition, overweight and lack of exercise. There are also causes and risk factors such as increasing age, continuous stress or an increased blood concentration of fibrinogen.

  • Genetics: A genetic predisposition to a heart or myocardial infarction is also presumably to be interpreted as one of the causes. Hypertension, lipid metabolism disorders and diabetes increase the risk of a myocardial infarction (myocardial infarction) with the coronary heart disease (CHD).


  • Rare causes: A vascular occlusion may be caused by a blood clot (embolism) or inflammation of the coronary vessels can be the cause. In younger patients who have suffered a myocardial infarction, a cramping of a coronary vessel (vasospasm) can also be the cause.

Men suffer a cardiac infarction compared to women earlier and about three times as often. However, the diagnosis of heart attack in women is more often misunderstood.


Heart attack signs and symptoms: Heart attack symptoms are often associated with death, and in elderly people with confusion. Other symptoms include weakness, nausea, and pallor in the face. Also, the heart attack signs include cold sweat, heart races as well as heart stumbles.

heart attack


Heart attack Treatment: An immediate therapy after a heart attack is also important to keep the complication rate and the risk of death low. First-time treatment – before a therapy: Call the emergency physician if suspected of a heart attack! In the meantime, it may be advisable to sit quietly with the upper part of the affected person and take one tablet of acetylsalicylic acid (500 mg).

Bypass Surgery: When transported to the hospital, the doctor administers oxygen, painkillers and soothing agents, followed by therapy and monitoring in the intensive care unit. Usually, a heart catheter examination is carried out (in which the affected vessel can be directly dilated) or an infusion for dissolving the blood clot. Sometimes a bypass operation is performed directly in the course of myocardial infarction therapy; however, this is at a high risk in such acute cases.

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