WHAT IS GREEN STAR (GLAUCOMA)?
Glaucoma Definition: As a green star (or glaucoma) is a series of different eye diseases, which lead to the loss of nerve fibres. The progressive excavation of the optic nerve (optic nerve head) is one of the most important findings in the case of an advanced course. As a result, so-called scotomas (facial defects) occur in a green star, which can lead to blindness.
WHAT CAUSES GREEN STAR (GLAUCOMA)?
Glaucoma Causes: All conditions which increase the eye pressure or reduce the blood pressure in the optic nerve head can lead to glaucoma or green star. The optic nerve damage in the Green Star can be seen in the characteristic cavity of the optic nerve, which first affects the nerve fibres in the middle retina and then progresses to the centre.
Risk factors that contribute to the emergence of a green star of the eye or glaucoma:
- very low blood pressure or strongly fluctuating blood pressure
- increased eye pressure
- genetic predisposition
- Circulation problems on the hands and feet, tinnitus or a migraine can lead to damage without increased eye pressure
- Diabetes mellitus
- high short-sightedness or long-sightedness
- Ethnic group: dark-skinned women are more likely to develop glaucoma than light-skinned
- high age
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF GREEN STAR (GLAUCOMA)?
1. Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: The primary open-angle glaucoma is initially long without any recognizable symptoms. Typically, those affected do not feel pain. However, in the case of high eye pressure, it may be possible that coloured rings or courtyards around the eyes become light sources. The reason for this is a so-called epithelial oedema, in which water accumulates in the outermost layer of the cornea of the eye. In later stages, symptoms develop as in this glaucoma form of visual field defects.Those with open-angle glaucoma can go blind without timely treatment
2. Glaucoma case (acute glaucoma): A glaucoma case (also called “acute glaucoma”) is a medical emergency requiring immediate medical attention. Usually, a glaucoma case occurs only in one eye and is characterized by typical symptoms such as:
- Red eye
- Eyeball feels hard on the closed eye under mild pressure (so-called “stone-hard eye”)
- Pupil does not respond to light (light staring)
- eye pain
- blurred vision
Frequently, the following symptoms also occur in those with a glaucoma case:
- severe headaches,
- and vomiting.
WHAT TREATS GREEN STAR (GLAUCOMA)?
Glaucoma Treatment: The first step in the treatment of glaucoma is the medication with eye droppings. In addition, surgical procedures can also be followed, with the trabeculectomy being used here. An alternative to the medicinal therapy of the Green Stars is a so-called laser trabeculoplasty.
1. Glaucoma Medication: A variety of options are available for the medicinal treatment of a green star of the eye. This includes the following substances which are administered mainly in the form of eye drops:
- Timolol, levobunolol, beta blockers
- Carbachol, pilocarpine, cholinergic
- Brimonidine, clonidine
- Dorzolamide, brinzolamide
- Travoprost, Bimatoprost, Latanoprost, Tafluprost
The above-mentioned medicines for the treatment of the green star serve to reduce the symptoms such as the production of aqueous humor. Prostaglandins open up a new drainage path. It is possible to combine the means of treatment of the Green Stars. Lifetime therapy is often required.
2. Glaucoma Surgery Laser: The following options are available:
- Laser cyclic destruction: sclerotherapy of the ciliary body
- Cyclocryotherapy: Reduction of the production of cold water in the ciliary body by cold
- Argon laser trabeculoplasty: Improvement of the flow at the chamber angle by laser
- Selective laser trabeculoplasty: Improvement of the aqueous humor
- Neodymium-YAG laser iridotomy: Improvement of the aqueous humor by opening an iris
The effect of laser treatment occurs after about six weeks. The intraocular pressure of the affected patient can be reduced by about 5-10 mm Hg.
3. Glaucoma Surgery: If stabilization of a green star is not possible either by laser treatment or by medication, surgery can create an artificial discharge. The aim is to permanently eliminate the disturbed equilibrium between liquid production and liquid effluent. The following procedures are available:
- Trabeculectomy and Goniotrepanation: production of a drainage fistula at the sclera (leather skin)
- Goniotomy and trabeculotomy: opening of the trabecular meshwork and connection of the anterior chamber with the Schlemm canal
- Iridectomy: Pressure equalization through an opening in the rainbow skin
- Canaloplasty: Use of an annular implant through the Schlemm canal