Farsightedness: Signs, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention
In hyperopia (hyperopia) the axis is distinguished from refraction hyperopia. In contrast to myopia, the affected persons perceive a sharp distance, but they do not recognize objects in the vicinity.
Axial hyperopia is the most common form of hyperopia. The eye, and thus the distance between the cornea and retina, is too short, whereas in refractive hyperopia the refractive power of the lens is not sufficient for sharp vision. The focal point of the incident rays lies behind the retina in both forms . If the axis is only shortened by one millimeter, this causes a change of +3 diopters. Axial hyperopia is congenital in most cases.
Far-sightedness can also affect children and adolescents, but they can often compensate for the weakness of the eyes. Due to the special effort of the eyes, however, side effects such as eye or headaches can occur.
With increasing age, long-sightedness often arises and occurs either alone or in combination with presbyopia. Almost all persons aged 45 or over suffer from long-sightedness and are dependent on appropriate visual aids. However, it generally does not deteriorate with age. Only the presbyopia usually begins earlier in patients with farsightedness.
Symptoms of farsightedness
The symptoms of farsightedness are usually much more pronounced in older people than in children and adolescents. These then do not see any objects close up, which is especially noticeable when reading magazines and books.
Since the eye has to exert more pressure in the case of farsightedness, this results in additional eye and headaches as well as a rapid fatigue of the eyes.
Diagnosis and treatment of hyperopia
In order to be able to clearly diagnose this defect, the refractive power of the eye must first be determined. In this study, it is also possible to determine immediately which dioptre number the patient needs. When the eyes are far-sighted, the diopter count is always positive (eg +1.5).
The treatment methods are all aimed at correcting existing refraction errors. Both glasses and contact lenses are often used. Contact lenses, however, frequently lead to burning or dry eyes and also require very good care. However, contact lenses and suitable care products are not inconsiderable costs.
A so-called progressive lens is suitable for patients who suffer from both vision and myopia. The spectacle lenses are divided into different areas so that when the eyes are viewed through the lower half, myopia is corrected and myopia is corrected by the upper half. Previously, patients who suffered from multiple vision defects needed the right pair of glasses for every restriction – this is now a thing of the past thanks to progressive lenses.
Long-sightedness can also be corrected by laser surgery. However, the operation in the case of long-sightedness often does not achieve a success comparable to that of myopia. However, the risks and side effects are equally low. Corneal scars, as well as an over- or under-correction of farsightedness are the most frequent surgical risks.
The surgery is also possible only for patients with up to four diopters, while the implantation of an artificial lens is possible with a higher diopter count. This procedure is also becoming more and more popular and can even be performed on an outpatient basis in medical practices.
The cost of a LASIK surgery is about 1,000 to 3,000 euros per eye. Since this is a purely cosmetic procedure, the funds pay this surgery only in exceptional cases.
Prevention of farsightedness
Prevention is not possible. In the case of far-sighted children, however, it is important to correct these in good time in order to prevent an inward slant