In cataract (medical name: cataract), it is a disease of the eyes, in which the eye-lens darkens. The first symptoms are usually only very late so that the treatment of the horror star begins with a delay.
WHAT IS CATARACT?
Cataract Definition: A particularly characteristic of the cataract is a greyish colouration behind the pupil in an advanced stage of the disease. The term “grey star” is derived from its colouring. Particularly in old age, the grey star is to be found and is therefore often referred to as age cataract. Above all, people over 60 years are affected by this disease.
WHAT CAUSES CATARACT?
Cataract Causes: Cataract can be due to many causes. In most people the grey star breaks out ( age star) for about 60 years, the causes are usually hereditary. Only in very rare cases are children and adolescents suffering from this disease. However, an early treatment is always advisable – an operation of the cataract can usually stop the course of the disease. Furthermore, the grey star can also be triggered by drugs such as cortisone. For the development of the disease, it is no matter whether the cortisone is used locally as a drop or internally in the body of the affected person.
In addition, different rays are also considered a cause of the cataract. These include the UV light of the senses, infrared light, radioactive rays, X-rays and also heat rays. Protective goggles are therefore essential to protect the eyes. Especially in the tropics due to the direct sun radiation very early with a disease to be expected. Here, the gray star is often seen between the ages of 40 and 50 years. Even the smoking and other injuries to the eye may favour the development of the disease. Eye injuries include, for example, eye bruises, open injuries, the penetration of foreign bodies, or injuries caused by an electric shock or lightning strike.
Another risk factor is the sugar disease (diabetes). The resulting form of lens dislocation, the so-called Zuckerstar, affects mainly younger persons suffering from type I diabetes. With type II diabetes, on the other hand, age starters can occur prematurely. This is because these individuals have only insensitivity of the sugar-processing tissues to insulin. Insulin deficiency does not occur until later. The lack of important nutrients or skin diseases such as neurodermatitis can also trigger the development of the eye disease. The cataract can also be congenital – this has either hereditary causes or is due to a complication during pregnancy, such as a rubella disease of the mother
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF CATARACT?
Cataract Symptoms: In the case of a cataract, a cloudiness occurs behind the eye lens. The incident light is diffusely refracted by this turbidity. At the same time, the glare sensitivity of the eye of the affected persons is also greatly increased by the cataract. First signs of a cataract are therefore usually found when driving the car in bad weather or at night. Depending on the severity of the cataract in the eye, the symptoms can vary widely and the persons affected can be severely restricted in their vision.
The symptoms of cataract are usually seen later in the disease. The affected persons notice a so-called veil or seeing double images. Furthermore, these people suffer from a loss of contrast while seeing, perceive a light shining around different objects, can no longer properly adjust the light and the dark, and spatial vision is also severely restricted during the horror. A major problem for many affected persons is also the change of sharp vision in the distance and proximity. In the case of a posterior subcapsular bark occlusion, sight in the vicinity is impaired. In the case of a so-called core star in the eye of the person concerned, an effect on vision in the distance can be observed. The grey star can also develop into a so-called total star and lead to blindness. Here the whole lens of the eye is affected. In such cases, it is particularly important to plan the treatment of the cataract at an early stage.
WHAT TREATS CATARACT?
Cataract Treatment: The cataract is treated by means of a lens replacement during a cataract operation. In this case, the lens clouded by the cataract is removed in the eye and replaced by an artificial lens. The operation is usually carried out under local anaesthetic on an outpatient basis.
After a consultation with the doctor, the decision to operate the cataract can be easier. The time of the treatment is usually chosen on the basis of the current life situation of the person concerned. The progress of the cataract and the associated restriction of the eye in everyday life play a decisive role here.
The procedure of the operation: For the anaesthetic of the eye, either drops or a syringe are used. The incision made during the operation is only two to three millimetres long and must not be seen in most cases afterwards.
Through this small incision in the eye, the doctor liquefies the nucleus and the cortex of the lens with the aid of ultrasound. This is also referred to as phacoemulsification. The resulting liquid is subsequently sucked from the eye. In the operation of the cataract, the treating physician leaves the lateral and posterior lens capsules. The artificial lens is first folded or collapsed into the capsule bag. It is only in the eye that the soft artificial lens expands and takes its full form. The doctor then anchors the lens on its fine holding braces in the capsule ovary still present.
Very rarely, a non-folding lens is still used today. In addition, implanting the artificial lens behind the pupil is also possible.